Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials in Food

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Many biologically derived substances exhibit antimicrobial properties in the foods in which they normally are found or may be developed for commercial use as additives to other foods requiring preservation. Chair: John N. Sofos, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. R132, ISBN 1-887383-12-3, April 1998, 103 pp., $28.00; Interpretive Summary, 1 p., free.

 

Table of Contents

Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials in Food

 


Table of Contents

Interpretive Summary, 1
Food Preservation and Safety, 1
Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials, 1
Future of Natural Antimicrobials, 2

Summary, 3

1 Introduction, 9

2 Role and Need for Antimicrobials in Food, 12

3 Description of Antimicrobials, 15
Introduction, 15
Traditional Antimicrobials, 17
Organic Acid Antimicrobials, 18
Introduction, 18
Acetic Acid, 19
Benzoic Acid, 19
Lactic Acid, 20
Propionic Acid, 21
Sorbic Acid, 22
Other Organic Acids, 23
Lipid Antimicrobials, 25
Introduction, 25
Fatty Acids, 25
Monoacylglycerols and Other Fatty Acid Esters, 26
Lipopeptides, 28
Antimicrobial Plant Substances, 28
Introduction, 28
Garlic and Onion, 32
Phenolic Compounds in Spices and Herbs, 35
Plant Pigments and Related Compounds, 37
Other Plant Phenolic Compounds, 38
Hops, 39
Coffee, Tea, Kola, and Cocoa, 40
Carbohydrates, 41
Phytoalexins, 41
Polypeptide Antimicrobials, 42
Introduction, 42
Lytic Enzymes, 44
Peroxidases and Oxidases, 48
Transferrins, 50
Antimicrobial Peptides, 53
Miscellaneous Polypeptides, 60
Miscellaneous Microbial Metabolites with Antimicrobial Activity, 60
Introduction, 60
Ethanol, 61
Natamycin, 62
Nonprotein Inhibitors from Lactic Acid Bacteria, 63

4 Interactions of Antimicrobial Hurdles, 66

5 Activity and Uses in Foods, 67
Introduction, 67
Traditional Antimicrobials, 67
Organic Acid Antimicrobials, 67
Lipid Antimicrobials, 68
Antimicrobial Plant Substances, 69
Polypeptide Antimicrobials, 71
Miscellaneous Microbial Metabolites with Antimicrobial Activity, 74

6 Potential for Applications, 77

7 Conclusions, 80

Appendix A: Symbols, Acronyms, and Abbreviations, 81

Appendix B: Glossary, 82

Literature Cited, 83

Index, 99



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