Issue Papers

Issue Papers - IP41 - January 2009
When producers decide which carcass disposal method to use, they must consider the number of mortalities, the cause of death and whether infectious agents are involved, environmental implications, regulatory requirements, operational costs, and efficiency. This Issue Paper provides a comprehensive summary of the scientific, technical, and social aspects of various ruminant carcass disposal technologies using information gleaned from a Kansas State University comprehensive report. The authors discuss the predominant methods of mortality disposal in commercial ruminant production, including burial and landfill, rendering, composting, incineration, and alkaline hydrolysis. The paper includes an Appendix that addresses special considerations for material potentially infected with diseases. Chair: Marty Vanier, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan. IP41, January 2009, 20 pp., FREE. Available online AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).
 
 
Issue Papers - IP40 - October 2008
Methods for the disposal of poultry carcasses currently include burial, incineration, composting, and rendering. Although each method is preferable under specific circumstances, each also presents disadvantages, including potential effects on groundwater and increasing cost considerations. With those concerns in mind, there are other, emerging technologies for carcass disposal that may offer viable alternatives. Methods, strategies, and practical applications presented in this paper summarize acceptable means for disposal of poultry mortality. Chair: John P. Blake, Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. IP 40, October 2008, 20 pp., FREE. Available online AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).
 
 
Issue Papers - IP39 - July 2008
This Issue Paper provides a critical assessment of information available on methods of swine carcass disposal under routine and catastrophic conditions. The authors have focused on efficiency and effectiveness of available methods as well as potential animal health and environmental protection considerations. The paper addresses the four predominant methods of mortality disposal in commercial swine production--burial, incineration, rendering, and composting--and various alternative and nontraditional methods and technologies. Chair: Allen Harper, Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Suffolk. IP 39, July 2008, 16 pp., FREE. Available online AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).
 
 
Issue Papers - IP38 - May 2008

PART 7, "ANIMAL AGRICULTURE'S FUTURE THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY."Infectious animal diseases continue to rank foremost among the significant factors limiting efficient production in animal agriculture. In addition, infectious agents that are transmitted from animals to humans by way of food and water present an increasing threat to the safety and security of the world food supply and continue to affect human health significantly. Animal vaccines are among the most effective, successful tools for preventing and controlling infectious diseases in animal agriculture. This Issue Paper addresses these concerns and provides details about specific diseases and vaccines. Chair: Mark W. Jackwood, Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens. IP 38, May 2008, 12 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP37 - December 2007

This Issue Paper identifies the nature of gene flow and discusses the relatively limited situations in which it is likely to cause economic problems in the production of commercial biotech crops.The paper explains how gene flow relates to adventitious presence, describes the biological traits being imparted into biotech crops, summarizes present risk assessment and regulatory mechanisms, and discusses potential economic effects and policy and research ramifications of gene flow of commercial biotech crops. Chair: David Gealy, USDA--Agricultural Research Service, Stuttgart, Arkansas. IP 37, December 2007, 24 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP36 - October 2007

Controlled human studies have revealed a diverse range of health benefits from consumption of probiotics, due largely to their impact on immune function or on microbes colonizing the body.This publication reviews the literature on probiotics, describes the characteristics of probiotics, discusses the microbes that colonize the human body, and explains how probiotics can treat and prevent disease.The paper also addresses safety issues of probiotic use, suggests future developments, and provides research and policy recommendations.Chair: Mary Ellen Sanders, Dairy and Food Culture Technologies, Centennial, Colorado. IP 36, October 2007, 20 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP35 - May 2007

PART 6, "ANIMAL AGRICULTURE'S FUTURE THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY."This paper describes the potential for transgenic livestock to advance the development of new medications for the treatment of human disease.Two techniques discussed in this paper are the predominant methods used to produce transgenic livestock, pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).The paper offers a brief overview of current production methods and challenges, and addresses economic, regulatory, and societal factors that impact the commercialization of products and treatments derived from transgenic animals.An appendix provides an in-depth description of the SCNT methodology.Chair: Carol L. Keefer, University of Maryland, College Park. IP 35, May 2007, 12 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP33 - July 2006

PART 4, "ANIMAL AGRICULTURE'S FUTURE THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY."Manure from food animals is a valuable source of fertilizer, but concentrations of manure nutrients and metals may exceed needs for plant growth and cause environmental pollution.Biotechnology has emerged as one of the most effective tools for monitoring manure nutrient composition.This paper reviews the existing biotechnology (including novel technology) applied to manage animal manure nutrients and discusses potential biotechnology derived by genomics approaches.It also addresses specific areas of plant-, animal-, microorganism-, and diet-based approaches for management; models of potential benefits of biotechnology; and industrial, societal, and governmental issues.Chair: Xingen Lei, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. IP 33, July 2006, 20 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP34 - July 2006

PART 5, "ANIMAL AGRICULTURE'S FUTURE THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY."As the global land area of biotechnology-derived crops continues to increase, these crops have become an increasingly important source of feedstuffs for farm animals, and it is important to review the safety of meat, milk, and eggs derived from animals fed these crops.This paper addresses topics including an overview of regulatory assessments for biotechnology-derived crops modified for agronomic input traits; comparative safety assessment process; results of feeding studies in farm animals; and the fate of consumed proteins and DNA in livestock. Chair: Richard Phipps, University of Reading, Reading, UK.IP 34, July 2006, 8 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).

 
 
Issue Papers - IP32 - June 2006

As an industrial chemical, acrylamide has been studied extensively for more than 40 years, resulting in a broad base of scientific knowledge covering various toxicological endpoints, metabolism, kinetics, mode of action, and health effects in animals. Very little scientific evidence is available in humans, particularly with respect to food.This paper covers research concerning the occurrence of acrylamide in food, including formation and detection; methods of mitigation and reduction; dietary exposure; toxicology and epidemiology; and the elements of accurate, effective risk communications. Cochairs:David Lineback, University of Maryland, College Park, and Michael Pariza, University of Wisconsin, Madison.IP 32, June 2006, 16 pp., FREE. Available online (www.cast-science.org) AND in print (515-292-2125; fee for shipping/handling).