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This brief report outlines the main economic effects of the observed asynchrony in approvals for biotech-improved crops from regulatory systems in countries that are major global commodity exporters and importers. Initially the authors describe the work of scientists from a range of academic disciplines who use a variety of modeling and analytical techniques to approach this general question. In the next section the authors discuss in detail the question at hand and why it is so important to producers and consumers worldwide. The report then describes concrete research results in several relevant areas, including the effects on trade, downstream industries, the adoption of biotechnology innovations, biotech investment and R&D, crop breeding, and farm income. Proposed policies that could decrease regulatory asynchrony and its impacts on the global agricultural economy are also discussed. Chair: Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes, University of Missouri-Columbia. QTA2016-2, 12 pp., December 2016. AVAILABLE ONLINE ONLY.
A los niños se les enseña la frase “eres lo que comes” y esta frase se repite posteriormente a lo largo de la vida. Este dicho habla de la íntima conexión entre lo que el individuo decide comer y su salud—y hasta su identidad. Dada la actual cadena de suministro alimentaria, predominantemente global, los consumidores no pueden observar los procesos de producción de los alimentos que consumen. Con frecuencia, los consumidores se ven expuestos a etiquetas que comunican aspectos específicos del proceso de producción de alimentos. El progreso en la ciencia y la tecnología agrícola ha sido de beneficio, tanto para los productores como para los consumidores y será necesario para mejorar la condición de los pobres en los Estados Unidos y el resto del mundo. Este artículo de CAST examina lo que se sabe sobre las reacciones de los consumidores ante las etiquetas de proceso, identifica un marco legal en este sentido y por último, presenta directrices de políticas que ponen en relieve en qué momento el etiquetado de proceso es de beneficio o puede ser perjudicial para el sector agrícola y las personas que consumen los alimentos que éste produce. Chair: Kent D. Messer, Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, University of Delaware, Newark. IP56, October 2015, 16 pp. Gratuito. Disponible en línea e impreso (Cuota de envío y manejo).
This is a compilation and enrichment of papers presented at The Last Food Mile Conference held at the University of Pennsylvania in December 2014. Topics include food waste in the industry sector and how it is handled, characteristics of food waste in restaurants and in homes, how food waste can be measured, what interventions are most effective, food recovery from the supply chain and how it is diverted and used, and how food marketing affects consumption and waste. Click links here to view the Table of Contents and the Introduction. ISBN 978-1-887383-35-6, March 2016, 360 pp. AVAILABLE ONLINE ONLY. To download, click on "Select Delivery Method", "Online/Downloadable" and "Download Now". NOTE: CAST Members should login first through the Members Only menu to receive membership pricing.
Bioenergy is being pursued globally to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and provide a reliable energy source. To lessen conflicts with existing food/feed production, bioenergy crops are bred to grow on marginal lands with minimal inputs. Many are concerned that new invasive species may be introduced as bioenergy crops. The authors of this commentary show that the risk of invasion can most effectively be prevented through a life-cycle approach that adopts appropriate scientific and policy tools at each step in the production process, from crop selection to field production, feedstock transport and storage, and decommissioning—thus avoiding the "kudzu effect." This paper provides a clear, comprehensive framework to guide regulatory agencies in the selection and permitting of biofuel feedstocks. Chair: Jacob Barney, Virginia Tech. QTA2016-1, 12 pp., February 2016. AVAILABLE ONLINE ONLY.
We live in a world of labels, and even though information is crucial, some labeling leads to confusion, negative views, and misunderstanding. In the supermarket, consumers might misinterpret “facts” or develop disparaging images. The authors of this paper look at the impact labeling has on the food industry—the choices consumers make, the way labeling affects the adoption of technology, and the influence labeling might have on the amount of money spent for research and product development. Legislators, regulatory officials, and consumers will benefit from the thoughtful, science-based information in this Issue Paper. Chair: Kent D. Messer, Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, University of Delaware, Newark. IP56, October 2015, 16 pp. FREE. Available online and in print (fee for shipping/handling).
Crop protection is critical to the growth of healthy plants, the enhancement of the environment, and the production of healthy foods. Recognition of the critical role of crop protection in food production has been ignored and derided by some sectors. This Issue Paper (IP 55) reviews the benefits of crop protection, including the use of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides in crop production. The information provides a summary of the benefits of Integrated Pest Management as well as a section focusing on new uses of pesticides that are efficacious in reducing risk and providing new benefits. Chair: Stephen Weller, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. IP55, November 2014, 28 pp., FREE. Available online and in print (fee for shipping/handling may apply).